An oceanic trench several kilometres wide was exposed in the earthquake zone.[39]. Approximately 90,000 buildings and many wooden houses were destroyed.[69]. The tsunami waves wreaked havoc in the densely populated Jogindar Nagar area, situated 13 km (8.1 mi) south of Campbell Bay. The highest-recorded tsunami run-up was measured 19.6 m (64 ft) at Ban Thung Dap, on the south-west tip of Ko Phra Thong Island and the second-highest at 15.8 m (52 ft) at Ban Nam Kim. The Sunda megathrust is a fault that extends approximately 5,500 km (3300 mi) from Myanmar (Burma) in the north, running along the southwestern side of Sumatra, to the south of Java and Bali before terminating near Australia. The last major tsunami in the Indian Ocean was about A.D. [78] Given the enormous power of the tsunami, the fishing industry suffered the greatest. Bletery et al. The key parameter is the curvature of the megathrust. The 2007 event is interpreted to be a partial failure of the rupture area of the 1833 event. On that winter's night a megathrust earthquake, just like the Boxing Day earthquake of 2004, struck the Pacific Northwest. The first warning sign of a possible tsunami is the earthquake itself. [16], The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was initially documented as having a moment magnitude of 8.8. The second wave was the strongest. This quickly elevated the height and increased the speed of waves, destroying the nearby Indonesian town of Lhoknga. [70][68] Tsunami waves measured on the east coast ranged from 4.5–9 m (15–30 ft) at Pottuvill to Batticaloa at 2.6–5 m (8 ft 6 in–16 ft 5 in) in the north-east around Trincomalee and 4–5 m (13–16 ft) in the west coast from Moratuwa to Ambalangoda. This was similar to eyewitness accounts of the tsunami at Banda Aceh. [68] In Sri Lanka, the civilian casualties were second only to those in Indonesia, with approximately 35,000 killed by the tsunami. Megathrust faults in subduction zones cause large and damaging earthquakes. [37] Since movement was vertical as well as lateral, some coastal areas may have been moved to below sea level. The maximum tsunami wave height of 11 m (36 ft). [151], In the days following the tsunami, significant effort was spent in burying bodies hurriedly due to fear of disease spreading. For example, the folklore of the Onges talks of "huge shaking of ground followed by high wall of water". These tales and oral folklore from previous generations may have helped the survival of the inhabitants. [90], The tsunami was detected in the southern parts of east Africa, where rough seas were reported, specifically on the eastern and southern coasts that face the Indian Ocean. [52] However, not all tsunamis cause this "disappearing sea" effect. Because of the distances involved, the tsunami took anywhere from fifteen minutes to seven hours to reach the coastlines. The inundation distance is about 5 km (3.1 mi). [139], In a poll conducted in 27 countries, 15% of respondents named the tsunami the most significant event of the year. January 21, 2016 January 31, 2016 / cascadiaearthquake / Leave a comment. [116] The impact on coastal fishing communities and the people living there, some of the poorest in the region, has been devastating with high losses of income earners as well as boats and fishing gear. Numerous aftershocks were reported off the Andaman Islands, the Nicobar Islands and the region of the original epicentre in the hours and days that followed. Flooding occurred at the coast and low-lying areas inland, which were connected to open sea through creeks. The quiet resort town of Khao Lak is located on a stretch of golden sandy beach, famed for its hotels overlooking the Andaman Sea and hilly rainforests. However, this was proven untrue. The tsunami heights from the 2004 December earthquake Earthquakes are common at subductions zones, points where the Earth's plates meet and one plate moves below the other. [1] Measured in lives lost, this is one of the ten worst earthquakes in recorded history, as well as the single worst tsunami in history. [89], Bangladesh escaped major damage and deaths because the water displaced by the strike-slip fault was relatively little on the northern section of the rupture zone, which ruptured slowly. Helping restore the quality of drinking water after the tsunami. Submergence and uplift associated with the giant 1833 Sumatran subduction earthquake: Evidence from coral microatolls, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. Another factor is that some coasts of Taninthayi Division were protected by the Myeik Archipelago. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is working with governments of the region in order to determine the severity of the ecological impact and how to address it. On some locations, a coastal road was built which was higher than the shore, protecting a hotel which was behind it. It drowned forests and … The maximum runup height of almost 9 m (30 ft) was recorded in Bandarbeyla. The most affected was Prakasham District, recording 35 deaths, with maximum damage at Singraikonda. This considerably outweighed the allocation by the government to disaster relief and reconstruction of £75 million and came to an average of about £5.50 (US$10) donated by every citizen. [156] Many charities were given considerable donations from the public. Similar to Sri Lanka, survivors reported three waves with the second wave being the most powerful. The earthquake hit at just before 1am GMT or 7.58am local time on 26 December 2004. [citation needed] Then-UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan stated that reconstruction would probably take between five and ten years. Only the Iraq War was named by as many respondents. Banda Aceh, the closest major city suffered severe casualties, with about 167,000 people perishing. The 2004 earthquake and tsunami damage to the coral reefs has been reported by several articles (e.g., Kumaraguru et al., 2005, Foster et al., 2006, Chavanich et al., 2008). The 2002 Sumatra earthquake is believed to have been a foreshock, preceding the main event by over two years. A week after the earthquake, its reverberations could still be measured, providing valuable scientific data about the Earth's interior. [88] The Puntland coast in northern Somalia was by far the area hardest hit by the waves to the west of the Indian subcontinent. Similarly, the natural Chandler wobble of the Earth, which in some cases can be up to 15 m (50 ft), will eventually offset the minor wobble produced by the earthquake. The hardest-hit was a 650 km (400 mi) stretch of the Somalia coastline between Garacad (Mudug region) and Xaafuun (Bari region), which forms part of the Puntland province. The tsunami hit during high tide. The tsunami height was reduced from 12 m (39 ft) at Ulee Lheue to 6 m (20 ft) a further 8 km (5.0 mi) to the north-east. On Karon Beach, Kamala Beach and Kata Beach, the tsunami came in like a surging flood inland carrying people and cars. Research into evidence for previous events of this size suggests that they are rare, with two candidate earlier events occurring soon after AD 1290–1400 and AD 780–990. [25] The U.S. Geological Survey sees no evidence of a causal relationship between these events. The tsunami stranded cargo ships, barges and destroyed a mining facility near the Lampuuk coast, where the tsunami reached the fourth level of the building. Other footage showed the tsunami dramatically crashed into the Vivekananda Rock Memorial. 104, No. Island folklore recounted an earthquake and tsunami in 1907, and the islanders fled to inland hills after the initial shaking and before the tsunami struck. Officials estimated that billions of dollars would be needed. It is one of the most seismogenic structures on Earth, being responsible for many great and giant earthquakes, including the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that killed over 230,000 people. T. Ghosh, P. Jana, T.S. There were two to five tsunamis that coincided with the local high tide in some areas. [citation needed] Presence of seawalls at the Kerala and Tamil Nadu coasts reduced the impact of the waves. [12] It caused the planet to vibrate as much as 10 mm (0.4 in),[13] and also remotely triggered earthquakes as far away as Alaska. Several near-shore establishments and numerous infrastructures such as seawalls and a 20 MW diesel-generated power plant at Bamboo Flat were destroyed. The surface waves can be clearly seen to reinforce near the antipode (with the closest seismic stations in Ecuador), and to subsequently encircle the planet to return to the epicentral region after about 200 minutes. About 10 minutes later, the sea receded for a while before the tsunami arrived again as a large wall of water looming over the skyline and flooding the coast. Geophysics. Although the country's western Andaman Sea coastline lies at the proximity of the rupture zone, there were smaller tsunamis than the neighbouring Thai coast, because the main tsunami source did not extend to the Andaman Islands. In some cases, there are no warning signs at all: the sea will suddenly swell without retreating, surprising many people and giving them little time to flee. The Colombo-based International Water Management Institute monitored the effects of saltwater and concluded that the wells recovered to pre-tsunami drinking water quality one-and-a-half years after the event. It also benefited from the fact that the earthquake proceeded more slowly in the northern rupture zone, greatly reducing the energy of the water displacements in that region. These interplate earthquakes are the planet's most powerful, with moment magnitudes (M w) that can exceed 9.0.Since 1900, all earthquakes of magnitude 9.0 or greater have been megathrust earthquakes. Since over 51,000 vessels were lost to the tsunami, the industry boomed. The northern rupture occurred more slowly than in the south, at about 2.1 km/s (1.3 mi/s; 7,600 km/h; 4,700 mph), continuing north for another five minutes to a plate boundary where the fault type changes from subduction to strike-slip (the two plates slide past one another in opposite directions). Thailand experienced the second largest tsunami run-up. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands appear to have shifted south-west by around 1.25 m (4 ft 1 in) and to have sunk by 1 m (3 ft 3 in). The maximum inundation limit due to tsunami water was about 500 m (1,600 ft). The level of damage to the economy resulting from the tsunami depends on the scale examined. 'Megathrust earthquakes' triggered both the 2011 Japanese and 2004 Boxing Day tsunamis. [citation needed], Since 1900, the only earthquakes recorded with a greater magnitude were the 1960 Great Chilean earthquake (magnitude 9.5) and the 1964 Good Friday earthquake in Prince William Sound (magnitude 9.2). & Hantoro, W.S. There was also a great concern that the death toll could increase as disease and hunger spread. Consequently, tsunami runup heights vary from 5 m (16 ft) to 9 m (30 ft) with inundation distances varying from 44 m (144 ft) to 704 m (2,310 ft). [120], Some economists believe that damage to the affected national economies will be minor because losses in the tourism and fishing industries are a relatively small percentage of the GDP. The 71 casualties can be attributed to poor housing infrastructure and additionally, the fact that the coastal residents in the surveyed areas live on flat land along the coast, especially in the Ayeyarwaddy Delta, and that there is no higher ground to which to evacuate. The construction of seawalls and breakwaters reduced the power of waves at some locations. Scientists investigating the damage in Aceh found evidence that the wave reached a height of 24 m (80 ft) when coming ashore along large stretches of the coastline, rising to 30 m (100 ft) in some areas when travelling inland. Another amateur video captured by a German family at beach level, showed the tsunami appearing as a white horizontal line in the distant horizon, gradually becoming bigger (bore-like), engulfing a jet skier and lifting two police boats. Anthropologists had initially expected the aboriginal population of the Andaman Islands to be badly affected by the tsunami and even feared the already depopulated Onge tribe could have been wiped out. Another video showed the tsunami flooding the ground floor of a restaurant sweeping away an elderly couple. Relocation of earthquakes recorded by the agency for meteorology, climatology and geophysics (BMKG) in Indonesia and inversions of global positioning system (GPS) data reveal clear seismic gaps to the south of the island of Java. This ripple effect could especially be felt in the inland provinces of Thailand, such as Krabi, which acted as a starting point for many other tourist destinations in Thailand. [1] The largest earthquakes occur on separate 'patches' along the megathrust surface (1797, 1833, 1861, 2004, 2005 & 2007), with smaller events occurring at the boundaries between these patches (1935, 1984, 2000 & 2002). However, others caution that damage to infrastructure is an overriding factor. The Phi Phi Islands are a group of small islands that were affected by the tsunami. The subducting plate consists of two protoplates, the Indian and Australian plates. In recent years the fishery industry has emerged as a dynamic export-oriented sector, generating substantial foreign exchange earnings. [43][44], According to Tad Murty, vice-president of the Tsunami Society, the total energy of the tsunami waves was equivalent to about 5 megatons of TNT (21 PJ), which is more than twice the total explosive energy used during all of World War II (including the two atomic bombs) but still a couple of orders of magnitude less than the energy released in the earthquake itself. On 30 December 2004, four days after the tsunami, Terra Research notified the India government that its sensors indicated there was a possibility of 7.9 to 8.1 magnitude tectonic shift in the next 12 hours between Sumatra and New Zealand. Areas with dense coconut groves or mangroves had much smaller inundation distances, and those with river mouths or backwaters saw larger inundation distances. [3] The Java-Bali segment of the megathrust does not appear to be associated with great earthquakes, possibly due to mainly aseismic slip.[4]. [citation needed] According to local accounts,[attribution needed] tsunami waves attacked the area three times. 1,500-metre-high (5,000 ft) thrust ridges created by previous geologic activity along the fault had collapsed, generating landslides several kilometres wide. [4] Radar satellites recorded the heights of tsunami waves in deep water: maximum height was at 600 mm (2 ft) two hours after the earthquake, the first such observations ever made. The magnitude 8.7 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake, which originated off the coast of the Sumatran island of Nias, is not considered an aftershock, despite its proximity to the epicentre, and was most likely triggered by stress changes associated with the 2004 event. However, the public health risks may have been exaggerated, and therefore this may not have been the best way to allocate resources. [87], The tsunami travelled 5,000 km (3,100 mi) west across the open ocean before striking the East African country of Somalia. [80] In Chuckchucha and Lapati, the tsunami arrived in a three-wave cycle with a maximum tsunami wave height of 12 m (39 ft). Many tourists and locals can be seen trying to gather fish. [17] Although the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center has accepted these new numbers, the United States Geological Survey has so far not changed its estimate of 9.1. A series of massive tsunami waves grew up to 30 m (100 ft) high once heading inland, after being created by the underwater seismic activity offshore. The volcanic activity that results as the Indo-Australian Plate subducts the Eurasian Plate has created the Sunda Arc. [140][141] The extensive international media coverage of the tsunami, and the role of mass media and journalists in reconstruction, were discussed by editors of newspapers and broadcast media in tsunami-affected areas, in special video-conferences set up by the Asia Pacific Journalism Centre. The exact amount is not yet known, but theoretical models suggest the earthquake shortened the length of a day by 2.68 microseconds, due to a decrease in the oblateness of the Earth. INTRODUCTION The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December with the epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. Due to close proximity to the earthquake, the tsunami took just minutes to devastate the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. A rise in sea level was observed before the first wave came within 5 minutes of the earthquake. The only recorded earthquakes with a larger MW were the 1960 Chilean and 1964 Alaskan quakes, with 2.5×1023 joules (250 ZJ) and 7.5×1022 joules (75 ZJ), respectively. [159], Megathrust underwater earthquake and subsequent tsunami in the Indian Ocean, Campbell, Matthew; Loveard, Keith; et al. An estimated 1,600 km (1,000 mi) of fault surface slipped (or ruptured) about 15 m (50 ft) along the subduction zone where the Indian Plate slides (or subducts) under the overriding Burma Plate. After a pause of about another 100 seconds, the rupture continued northwards towards the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. [30] This energy is equivalent to over 1,500 times that of the Hiroshima atomic bomb, but less than that of Tsar Bomba, the largest nuclear weapon ever detonated. The Persson Cabinet was heavily criticized for its inaction. The deadliest-known earthquake in history occurred in 1556 in Shaanxi, China, with an estimated death toll of 830,000, though figures from this period may not be as reliable. The significantly lower tsunami impact on the Maldives compared to Sri Lanka is mostly due to the topography and bathymetry of the atoll chain with offshore coral reefs, deep channels separating individual atolls and its arrival within low tide which decreased the power of the tsunami. On Pulau Weh, the island experienced strong surges in the port of Sabang, yet there was little damage with a reported runup values of 3–5 m (9.8–16.4 ft), most likely due to the island being sheltered from the direct tsunami attack by the islands to the south-west. [21], Great earthquakes, such as the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, are associated with megathrust events in subduction zones. Because of its enormous energy release and shallow rupture depth, the earthquake generated remarkable seismic ground motions around the globe, particularly due to huge Rayleigh (surface) elastic waves that exceeded 10 mm (0.4 in) in vertical amplitude everywhere on Earth. [98] The European nation hardest hit was Sweden, with a death toll of 543. The earthquake hit at just before 1am GMT or 7.58am local time on 26 December 2004. [20], Indonesia lies between the Pacific Ring of Fire along the north-eastern islands adjacent to New Guinea, and the Alpide belt that runs along the south and west from Sumatra, Java, Bali, Flores to Timor. [129] In response to a request from the Maldivian Government, the Australian Government sent ecological experts to help restore marine environments and coral reefs—the lifeblood of Maldivian tourism. [80], The worst affected island in the Andaman & Nicobar chain is Katchall Island, with 303 people confirmed dead and 4,354 missing out of a total population of 5,312. The exact sequence of events involved in the earthquake continues to raise many questions. A subset of megathrust earthquakes produce anomalously large tsunamis for their magnitude. Indonesia was the worst affected area, with most death toll estimates at around 170,000. A 2006 study estimated a magnitude of Mw 9.1–9.3; Hiroo Kanamori of the California Institute of Technology estimates that Mw  9.2 is representative of the earthquake's size. Major damage occurred in two narrow strips of land bound on the west by the Arabian Sea and on the east by the Kerala backwaters. The time between the waves ranged from about 15 minutes to 90 minutes. In the Krishna district, the tsunami created havoc in Manginapudi and on Machalipattanam Beach. [26], The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake is thought to have triggered activity in both Leuser Mountain[27] and Mount Talang,[28] volcanoes in Aceh along the same range of peaks, while the 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake had sparked activity in Lake Toba, an ancient crater in Sumatra. The hardest-hit country outside Asia, Sweden, lost 543 tourists, mainly in Thailand. Others have said that Allah was angry that Muslims were killing each other in an ongoing conflict. On the western coast, the runup elevations were 4.5 m (15 ft) at Kanyakumari District in Tamil Nadu and 3.4 m (11 ft) each at Kollam and Ernakulam districts in Kerala. While local economies were devastated, the overall impact on the national economies was minor. A 'megathrust' earthquake in a subduction zone was the cause of the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami which killed 230,000 people in the Indian Ocean, and the 2011 Tohuku tsunami in … The only other recorded earthquakes of magnitude 9.0 or greater were off Kamchatka, Russia, on 4 November 1952 (magnitude 9.0) and Tōhoku, Japan (magnitude 9.1) in March 2011. [5][64][65], Meulaboh, a remote coastal city, was among the hardest hit by the tsunami. The Sunda megathrust can be divided into the Andaman Megathrust, Sumatra(n) Megathrust and Java(n) Megathrust. 89. [34] It also caused the Earth to minutely "wobble" on its axis by up to 25 mm (1 in) in the direction of 145° east longitude,[35] or perhaps by up to 50 or 60 mm (2.0 or 2.4 in). Thus, the state of Kerala was hit by the tsunami despite being on the western coast of India, and the western coast of Sri Lanka suffered substantial impacts. Along the Sunda Trench provides an opportunity for scientists to assess approach foreign. 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